Wet Age Related Macular Degeneration

Wet AMD occurs when abnormal blood vessels grow under the retina and leak causing vision loss.

What is wet macular degeneration?

Wet macular degeneration occurs when abnormal blood vessels (known as choroidal neovascularization) grow under the macula. These new blood vessels may then bleed and leak fluid, causing the macula to bulge or lift up from its normally flat position, thus distorting or destroying central vision. It is called wet because of the fluid the leaks from the abnormal blood vessels. Patient with wet macular degeneration usually develop rapid vision loss over the course of weeks or months. Straight lines may look wavy because the macula is no longer smooth. Below is a discussion of various manifestations of wet AMD. Click the button to learn more about the treament of wet AMD

Treatment of Wet AMD

What is a Choroidal Neovascular membrane?

Choroidal neovascular membranes are new blood vessels that grow beneath the retina and disrupt vision. These blood vessels grow in an area called the choroid, the area between the retina and the sclera (the white part of your eye). The choroid supplies oxygen and nutrients to the eye. These blood vessel growths break through the barrier between the choroid and the retina. Although one would think that more blood vessels supplying nutrients to the eye would be good, it is not. The new blood vessels grow out with scarring. Also, they leak more than normal retinal blood vessels. Finally they can bleed and blood is very harmful to the retina. Rarely patient maintain good vision with choroidal neovascular membranes (about 10 or 20 percent). Most people lose central vision rapidly who develop choroidal neovascular membranes unless they are treated.

What is a Disciform Scar?

Untreated, a person with a choroidal neovascular membrane will usually develop a submacular scar like the one in the photo. The scars are white because the are composed mostly of fibroblasts. Subretinal scars cause degeneration of the overlying retina and loss of vision. The scars are circular or disc shaped and therefore are called disciform scars. They cause vision loss because they block the transport of nutrients from the supporting tissue under the retina (the retinal pigment epithelium) which is vital to the survival and function of the retina. Unfortunately, once the retina has been permanently damaged by a submacular scar it cannot be resurrected. Retinal tissue does not regenerate. It cannot be replaced. Research is being pursued all over the world trying to find a way to fix damaged retinas, but nothing, at the moment (January 2015) is close to being effective.

What is Subretinal Fluid?

A hallmark of wet AMD is subretinal fluid. This comes from leaking abnormal blood vessels under the macula. Their is not a firm attachment between the retina and the underlying retinal pigment epithelium. The retina is held in place against the underlying retinal pigment epithelium by a pump in the retinal pigment epithelium. This pump removes naturally occurring fluid in the subretinal space and keeps it dry. The leakage from a choroidal neovascular membrane overwhelms the natural pump in the retinal pigment epithelium and subretinal fluid accumulates. The subretinal fluid distorts the retina causing patients to see things as wavy instead of straight. It also decreases the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the retina and makes the vision blurry. Subretinal fluid is best dectected using optical coherence tomography. The photo shows a dark area under the retina where subretinal fluid has accumulated. The effect (or lack of effect) of treatments for wet macular degeneration is usually evaluated by monitoring the optical coherence tomography scan for subretinal fluid.

What is a Pigment Epithelial Detachment?

Most patients with wet AMD develop a retinal pigment epithelial detachment. The retinal pigment epithelium is a layer of cells under the retina that supports the retina. In the OCT image it is the bright white line closest to the bottom of the picture with RPE on top of it. (there are two lines, the line on the bottom is the RPE, the line on the top is the back of the retina). When fluid or lipid (fatty material) or blood vessels accumulates under the retinal pigment epithelium the retinal pigment epithelium is pushed up. The bump in the retinal pigment epithelium is called a pigment epithelial detachment. These are common in wet AMD. Treatment does not always cause the retinal pigment epithelial detachment to flatten. Vision can be excellent over a retinal pigment epithelial detachment. The distortion of the overlying retina will often cause distortion in the vision. Retinal pigment epithlial detachments do not compromise the ability of the retinal pigment epithelium to nurish the retina. Finally, you can develop a retinal pigment epithelial detachment without wet AMD. These retinal pigment epithelial detachments have lipid (fatty) material in them but no blood vessels. About 90 percent of retinal pigment epithelial detachments are associated with wet AMD and abnormal blood vessel growth.

What is a Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy (PCV)?

Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy is a subtype of wet AMD that is caused by a mature vascular complex under the retina. It is characterized by a branching vascular network with one or more polyps at the termini of the vessels. The branching vascular network and the polyp(s) are best seen with indocyanine green angiography. There is some evidence the polypoidal choroidal vasculaopathy (PCV) is less response to anti-VEGF injection therapy than other forms of wet AMD. In many cases photodynamic therapy is helpful in treating PCV.

What is a Submacular Hemorrhage (Blood)?

Submacular hemorrhage (blood) is one of the most feared complications of wet AMD. The blood is toxic to the overlying retina and causes immediate severe vision loss. The photo shows blood in a patient whose vision dropped from 20/30 immediately to 20/1600 (no longer able to see even the big letters on the visual acuity chart). Fortunately, submacular hemorrhage is rare and occurs in only about 1 percent of patient with wet AMD. Once there is a submacular hemorrhage, vision almost never returns to what it was before the bleed. Treatment of wet AMD helps reduce the amount of vision loss. Surgery for submacular hemorrhage is controversial and may not be helpful. Visual recovery in someone with a submacular hemorrhage is very very slow. It usually takes about 6 months for the blood to absorb and then another 6-12 months for the overlying retina to heal. Vision usually improves some as the blood absorbs but not much. Most patients recover enough vision to see the big letters on the visual acuity chart but not enough vision to read.

Wet Macular Degeneration NEWS

Below are current articles from a Google News Feed on Wet Macular Degeneration

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Baltimore Sun

Ask the Expert: Macular degeneration can lead to difficulty reading, recognizing faces and performing other fine tasks
Baltimore Sun
Advanced dry macular degeneration has blind areas where there is a dropout of the normal retinal cells. Wet macular degeneration involves abnormal new blood vessels under the retina that leak and bleed and can cause scarring and loss of vision. The ...
Wet Macular Degeneration Market Growth Analysis, Opportunities Forecasts Report to 2018Healthcare Journal
Wet Macular Degeneration Market Disease Type, Treatment Algorithm along with Treatment Guidelines 2027Pharmaceuticals News
Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD) Market Analysis by Top Companies, Trends and Future Prospects Details ...Healthcare Trends

all 9 news articles »

Wet Macular Degeneration Market – Recent Study Including Growth Factors, Applications, Regional Analysis, Key ...
Healthcare Journal
Wet Macular Degeneration market analyzes the Present and future prospects of the Wet Macular Degeneration market worldwide. Wet Macular Degeneration Market Growth, Future Prospects and Competitive Analysis, 2016–2027 offers strategic insights into the ...

and more »

Medscape

Treat-Extend-Stop Protocol for Wet AMD: Long-term Outcomes
Medscape
Viewpoint. This was a well-designed retrospective review of long-term visual outcomes of patients with wet AMD treated with intravitreal anti-VEGF agents using a treat-extend-stop protocol. This study contrasts with long-term data from the CATT trial ...

and more »

Wet Macular Degeneration Market: Applications, Types and Market Analysis including Growth, Trends and Forecasts to ...
Healthcare Journal
Wet Macular Degeneration Market Forecast, 2027” report provides a comprehensive analysis of the Wet Macular Degeneration epidemiology, providing the historical and forecasted data for the 7MM during the forecast period from 2016-2027. Wet Macular ...

and more »

Wet Macular Degeneration Market Outlook 2018: Market Trends, Segmentation, Market Growth And Competitive ...
Pharmaceuticals News
Wet Macular Degeneration Market” report by offers comprehensive Insight of the pipeline (under development) therapeutics scenario and growth prospects across Wet Macular Degeneration Market development. The report provides detailed coverage of the ...

and more »

Coherent News (press release) (blog)

Macular degeneration patients regain sight with stem cell implants
ModernMedicine
Two patients with macular degeneration regained reading vision after receiving stem cells implanted with a new technique, according to researchers. Professor Lyndon da Cruz from Moorfields Eye Hospital NHS Foundation Trust and his colleagues engineered ...
Stem cell implant improves dry macular degenerationBioNews
New Stem Cell Treatment Can Cure Macular DegenerationCoherent News (press release) (blog)
Macular Degeneration (AMD) and Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) Drugs Market Detailed Analytical Overview by 2021Healthcare Trends

all 7 news articles »

FierceBiotech

Eye implant made from stem cells could halt macular degeneration
FierceBiotech
Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is one of the leading causes of blindness, affecting more than 10% of people over age 65 in developed countries. Drugs like Roche's Lucentis, which plugs up leaky blood vessels in the eye that are characteristic ...
The vision thing: stem cell procedures produce stunning macular degeneration resultsCosmos
Age-Related Macular Degeneration Market by Dry & Wet AMD Type, Route of Administration and Forecasts by 2023 ...Medgadget (blog)

all 10 news articles »

LEH PHARMA LTD.: Company Update
Post-Bulletin
Launched in November 2017, the EyeMax lens is the latest in LEH Pharma's iolAMD range of lenses and is unique in its ability to improve vision in patients at all stages of both dry and stable wet AMD. It is estimated that 200 million patients will be ...

and more »

Los Angeles Times

This retinal implant may one day cure blindness caused by macular degeneration
Los Angeles Times
... patch for the dry form of macular degeneration. Instead of using embryonic cells, Bharti's team is working with induced pluripotent stem cells — mature cells that are harvested from a patient and then "reprogrammed" back to a primitive phase in ...

and more »

Healthcare Journal

Retinal implant designed to replace support cells damaged by dry age-related macular degeneration
Science Daily
Trial participants have advanced disease with geography atrophy -- considered a late stage in dry AMD -- and very poor visual abilities. The implant, which was shown to be safe, improved the vision of one patient while the condition of the others ...
Wet Macular Degeneration - Pipeline Insight, 2018 Market Report; Launched via MarketResearchReports.comDigital Journal
Global Wet Macular Degeneration Market Size (Volume and Value) and Growth to 2027 Shared in Latest ResearchHealthcare Journal
Wet Macular Degeneration Pipeline Comprehensive Insights 2018Ratings Alerts (blog)

all 15 news articles »

Healthline

New Retinal Implant Produces Hope of Cure for Macular Degeneration
Healthline
What is macular degeneration? Non-neovascular age-related macular degeneration (NNAMD) is increasingly common in older adults, Kashani told Healthline. The disease has two forms, wet and dry. They differ in how they progress but end up in the same ...
The Medical Minute: Are you at risk for macular degeneration?Penn State News

all 2 news articles »

Opthea Doses Patients in Europe and Israel in Phase 2b Study of OPT-302 for Wet AMD
GlobeNewswire (press release)
MELBOURNE, Australia, March 27, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Opthea Limited (ASX:OPT), a developer of novel biologic therapies for the treatment of eye diseases, has dosed the first patients in Europe and Israel in the Company's ongoing Phase 2b trial of ...

and more »

Louisville Business First

Apellis sets price for second offering that could raise more than $140M
Louisville Business First
The rest will be used for working capital and other general corporate purposes. The company's leading treatment is for geographic atrophy (GA), an advanced form of age-related macular degeneration that leads to vision loss and eventually blindness ...
B. Riley Downgrades Apellis Pharmaceuticals (APLS) to NeutralStockNewsTimes
Apellis Pharmaceuticals (APLS) Shares Down 16.6%Week Herald
Brokerages Anticipate Apellis Pharmaceuticals (APLS) Will Announce Earnings of -$0.27 Per ShareMacon Daily
Zacks
all 44 news articles »

Medical Xpress

Are you at risk for macular degeneration?
Medical Xpress
There are two forms of age-related macular degeneration – the dry form, which is responsible for about 80 percent of cases, and the wet form, which is less common but responsible for nearly 90 percent of severe vision loss due to the disease. While ...


Wet Macular Degeneration Market Report 2018: Market Research Findings, Growth Factors Analysis
Healthcare Journal
Wet Macular Degeneration Market 2018 Report Point on in-depth Wet Macular Degeneration market analysis with future prospects of Wet Macular Degeneration market. Wet Macular Degeneration Market research report includes diverse topics like total market ...

and more »

Physician promotion is not direct-to-patient
STLtoday.com
Dear Dr. Roach • We were told that there is nothing to be done about macular degeneration of the eye. We are going for a second opinion. Do you have an answer? — Anon. Answer • There are two types of age-related macular degeneration, usually called ...

and more »

The Scientist

Vision Restored: The Latest Technologies to Improve Sight
The Scientist
Another recent stem cell–based tissue approach from researchers in the United Kingdom resulted in vision improvement in two older patients with the wet form of AMD. In these cases, blood vessels in the eye grow abnormally and lead to bleeding, the ...


Wet Macular Degeneration Market Comprehensive Insights 2018
Pharmaceuticals News
Wet Macular Degeneration- Competitive Landscape, Pipeline and Market Analysis, 2017, report provides comprehensive insights about marketed and pipeline drugs across this Mechanism of action. Key objective of the report is to establish the understanding ...

and more »

MIT Technology Review

This stem-cell implant could halt an incredibly common cause of blindness
MIT Technology Review
Another research team, at Moorfields Eye Hospital in London, recently reported that a similar stem-cell patch they developed was able to restore sight in two patients with the wet form of macular degeneration, which is caused by abnormal blood vessels ...

and more »

Proactive Investors Australia

Wet Macular Degeneration Market Research, Growth Opportunities, Analysis and Forecasts Report 2020
Pharmaceuticals News
Wet Macular Degeneration Market” report by offers comprehensive Insight of the pipeline (under development) therapeutics scenario and growth prospects across Wet Macular Degeneration Market development. The report provides detailed coverage of the ...
Worldwide Age-Related Macular Degeneration Market | Projected to grow at a CAGR of about 7.3% till 2023 | Top key ...Digital Journal
Opthea doses first patients in Europe and Israel in trial of macular degeneration treatmentProactive Investors Australia

all 9 news articles »

Louisville Business First

Louisville company to raise $125 million through stock offering
Louisville Business First
The company's leading treatment is in Apellis' treatment is for geographic atrophy (GA), an advanced form of age-related macular degeneration that leads to vision loss and eventually blindness. Apellis will spend about $123 million on clinical trials ...
Analysts Anticipate Apellis Pharmaceuticals (APLS) to Announce -$0.27 Earnings Per ShareMacon Daily

all 14 news articles »

ELSALYS BIOTECH ANNOUNCES THE REGISTRATION OF ITS DOCUMENT DE BASE
GlobeNewswire (press release)
Three other earlier programmes (ELB021, ELB031, ELB041), target cancer and more specifically the tumour microenvironment and one of the programs is being evaluated by a leader in the pharmaceutical industry. The last programme of the portfolio, ELB011 ...

and more »

There are two types of macular degeneration
Altoona Mirror
Wet AMD is treated with injection of medication directly into the eye, such as bevacizumab (Avastin) in addition to the AREDS2 vitamins. The sooner treatment is begun, the better. The medication is better at preserving vision than it is at bringing it ...


Zeaxanthin plus triple combination therapy for wet AMD improves vision
Healio
Oral zeaxanthin supplementation of triple combination therapy was found to be comparatively effective and cost-effective to triple therapy alone for neovascular age-related macular degeneration, according to a recent study. The 24-month clinical trial ...


Nine Members of Congress Honored for Efforts to Preserve Access to Quality Medical Eye Care
PR Newswire (press release)
Ophthalmologists use these drugs to treat patients who suffer from wet age-related macular degeneration and other sight-threatening diseases. Sens. Carper and Roberts and Rep. Paulsen were instrumental in preserving access to specialty medical eye care ...

and more »

MD Magazine

Benefits of Ranibizumab for AMD Outweigh Risk of MA Development
MD Magazine
The authors stated that the likelihood of MA development differs among individuals with wet AMD and suggested that the study results reinforced the need for individualized, or tailored, treatment that takes into account heightened risk factors for MA ...


Bucks Free Press

Bucks residents with eye condition, wet age-related macular degeneration, invited to new NHS trial
Bucks Free Press
Wet AMD occurs when abnormal blood vessels form underneath the macular and damage the cells which can cause rapid sight loss – however it can be gradual. Mr Mandeep Singh Bindra, consultant ophthalmologist and the study's principal investigator at ...

and more »

First patients in Europe, Israel enrolled in Opthea wet AMD phase 2b study
Healio
The first patients in Europe and Israel have been dosed in a phase 2b study of Opthea's OPT-302 for wet age-related macular degeneration, according to a press release. OPT-302, a novel VEGF-C/D “trap” therapy, is being evaluated in combination with ...


Wet Macular Degeneration API Market Growth Opportunities, Analysis and Forecasts Report 2020
Healthcare Trends
Wet Macular Degeneration API Market – Global Manufacturers, Marketed and Phase III Drugs Landscape, 2018 report provides comprehensive insights about marketed and Phase III products for Wet Macular Degeneration API . The report includes information of ...

and more »

Wet Macular Degeneration Market Trends Increases Steadily in Emerging Countries
Healthcare Journal
Wet Macular Degeneration Market Report Provides an in-depth exhaustive Wet Macular Degeneration market analysis and future prospects of Wet Macular Degeneration market. Wet Macular Degeneration Market report offers comprehensive Insight of the pipeline ...

and more »
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What about Resources?

Dr. Pautler's Blog
American Academy of Ophthalmology
MedlinePlus
National Institutes of Health
  • ARMD
    NIH's SeniorHealth website covers the topic of Age-Related Macular Degeneration
National Eye Institute
American Foundation for the Blind - Senior Site
  • Macular Degeneration
    Basic information about AMD and low vision; includes a self-test using an Amsler Grid
Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)
WebMD
LightHouse International
  • Macular Degeneration
    Provides a general overview of the basics of AMD, and a simulation showing a scene as it might be viewed by a person with AMD
Prevent Blindness America