Wet Age Related Macular Degeneration

Wet AMD occurs when abnormal blood vessels grow under the retina and leak causing vision loss.

What is wet macular degeneration?

Wet macular degeneration occurs when abnormal blood vessels (known as choroidal neovascularization) grow under the macula. These new blood vessels may then bleed and leak fluid, causing the macula to bulge or lift up from its normally flat position, thus distorting or destroying central vision. It is called wet because of the fluid the leaks from the abnormal blood vessels. Patient with wet macular degeneration usually develop rapid vision loss over the course of weeks or months. Straight lines may look wavy because the macula is no longer smooth. Below is a discussion of various manifestations of wet AMD. Click the button to learn more about the treament of wet AMD

Treatment of Wet AMD

What is a Choroidal Neovascular membrane?

Choroidal neovascular membranes are new blood vessels that grow beneath the retina and disrupt vision. These blood vessels grow in an area called the choroid, the area between the retina and the sclera (the white part of your eye). The choroid supplies oxygen and nutrients to the eye. These blood vessel growths break through the barrier between the choroid and the retina. Although one would think that more blood vessels supplying nutrients to the eye would be good, it is not. The new blood vessels grow out with scarring. Also, they leak more than normal retinal blood vessels. Finally they can bleed and blood is very harmful to the retina. Rarely patient maintain good vision with choroidal neovascular membranes (about 10 or 20 percent). Most people lose central vision rapidly who develop choroidal neovascular membranes unless they are treated.

What is a Disciform Scar?

Untreated, a person with a choroidal neovascular membrane will usually develop a submacular scar like the one in the photo. The scars are white because the are composed mostly of fibroblasts. Subretinal scars cause degeneration of the overlying retina and loss of vision. The scars are circular or disc shaped and therefore are called disciform scars. They cause vision loss because they block the transport of nutrients from the supporting tissue under the retina (the retinal pigment epithelium) which is vital to the survival and function of the retina. Unfortunately, once the retina has been permanently damaged by a submacular scar it cannot be resurrected. Retinal tissue does not regenerate. It cannot be replaced. Research is being pursued all over the world trying to find a way to fix damaged retinas, but nothing, at the moment (January 2015) is close to being effective.

What is Subretinal Fluid?

A hallmark of wet AMD is subretinal fluid. This comes from leaking abnormal blood vessels under the macula. Their is not a firm attachment between the retina and the underlying retinal pigment epithelium. The retina is held in place against the underlying retinal pigment epithelium by a pump in the retinal pigment epithelium. This pump removes naturally occurring fluid in the subretinal space and keeps it dry. The leakage from a choroidal neovascular membrane overwhelms the natural pump in the retinal pigment epithelium and subretinal fluid accumulates. The subretinal fluid distorts the retina causing patients to see things as wavy instead of straight. It also decreases the supply of oxygen and nutrients to the retina and makes the vision blurry. Subretinal fluid is best dectected using optical coherence tomography. The photo shows a dark area under the retina where subretinal fluid has accumulated. The effect (or lack of effect) of treatments for wet macular degeneration is usually evaluated by monitoring the optical coherence tomography scan for subretinal fluid.

What is a Pigment Epithelial Detachment?

Most patients with wet AMD develop a retinal pigment epithelial detachment. The retinal pigment epithelium is a layer of cells under the retina that supports the retina. In the OCT image it is the bright white line closest to the bottom of the picture with RPE on top of it. (there are two lines, the line on the bottom is the RPE, the line on the top is the back of the retina). When fluid or lipid (fatty material) or blood vessels accumulates under the retinal pigment epithelium the retinal pigment epithelium is pushed up. The bump in the retinal pigment epithelium is called a pigment epithelial detachment. These are common in wet AMD. Treatment does not always cause the retinal pigment epithelial detachment to flatten. Vision can be excellent over a retinal pigment epithelial detachment. The distortion of the overlying retina will often cause distortion in the vision. Retinal pigment epithlial detachments do not compromise the ability of the retinal pigment epithelium to nurish the retina. Finally, you can develop a retinal pigment epithelial detachment without wet AMD. These retinal pigment epithelial detachments have lipid (fatty) material in them but no blood vessels. About 90 percent of retinal pigment epithelial detachments are associated with wet AMD and abnormal blood vessel growth.

What is a Polypoidal Choroidal Vasculopathy (PCV)?

Polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy is a subtype of wet AMD that is caused by a mature vascular complex under the retina. It is characterized by a branching vascular network with one or more polyps at the termini of the vessels. The branching vascular network and the polyp(s) are best seen with indocyanine green angiography. There is some evidence the polypoidal choroidal vasculaopathy (PCV) is less response to anti-VEGF injection therapy than other forms of wet AMD. In many cases photodynamic therapy is helpful in treating PCV.

What is a Submacular Hemorrhage (Blood)?

Submacular hemorrhage (blood) is one of the most feared complications of wet AMD. The blood is toxic to the overlying retina and causes immediate severe vision loss. The photo shows blood in a patient whose vision dropped from 20/30 immediately to 20/1600 (no longer able to see even the big letters on the visual acuity chart). Fortunately, submacular hemorrhage is rare and occurs in only about 1 percent of patient with wet AMD. Once there is a submacular hemorrhage, vision almost never returns to what it was before the bleed. Treatment of wet AMD helps reduce the amount of vision loss. Surgery for submacular hemorrhage is controversial and may not be helpful. Visual recovery in someone with a submacular hemorrhage is very very slow. It usually takes about 6 months for the blood to absorb and then another 6-12 months for the overlying retina to heal. Vision usually improves some as the blood absorbs but not much. Most patients recover enough vision to see the big letters on the visual acuity chart but not enough vision to read.

Wet Macular Degeneration NEWS

Below are current articles from a Google News Feed on Wet Macular Degeneration

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The Newsman

Gene Therapy for Age-related Macular Degeneration Pipeline Analysis Report 2018 Featuring RetroSense ...
PR Newswire (press release)
This pipeline analysis report provides detailed insights into the clinical trials landscape of the gene therapy molecules for age-related macular degeneration in the development and pre-clinical stages. The report also offers comprehensive information ...
Wet Macular Degeneration Market Growth Analysis, Opportunities Forecasts Report to 2018The Newsman
Global Juvenile Macular Degeneration Treatment Market Professional Survey Report 2018 - QuestaleQuestale

all 29 news articles »

MD Magazine

Patients with Concurrent Cataracts, Wet AMD Safe to Undergo Cataract Surgery
MD Magazine
While patients with cataracts alone can be treated with a low-risk cataract surgery which replaces their eye's lens with a plastic one, physicians have expressed concern that if patients have wet AMD and are receiving anti-vascular endothelial growth ...


First Argentinian patient receives EyeMax Mono lens for AMD
Healio
The device is delivered during cataract surgery and helps to improve vision in patients with wet or dry AMD, the release said. “It is wonderful to have brought the EyeMax Mono lens into Argentina for the first time. The operation was a success, and ...


Global Macular Degeneration (AMD) and Other Retinal Diseases Drugs Industry and Market 2018-2028 - Visiongain ...
PR Newswire (press release)
Global Macular Degeneration (AMD) and Other Retinal Diseases Drugs Industry and Market 2018-2028: Wet AMD, Dry AMD, Diabetic Retinopathy, Lucentis, Eylea, Avastin, Visudyne - our new study reveals trends, R&D progress, and predicted revenues.

and more »

Age-Related Macular Degeneration Market Demand, Growth Factors, Supply, Latest rising Trend & Forecast to 2026
satPRnews (press release)
There are two clinical forms of age-related macular degeneration (AMD): dry and wet. Currently there are therapies available only for wet AMD. Drugs in late stages of development target the wet AMD segment and the late stage or atrophic form of dry AMD ...

and more »

LEH Pharma announces first EyeMax Mono surgery performed in Argentina
GlobeNewswire (press release)
The EyeMax lens is the latest in LEH Pharma's AMD lens portfolio and is unique in its ability to improve vision in patients at all stages of both dry and stable wet AMD. The product is delivered through a simple cataract surgery and is CE-marked and ...


The Newsman

Wet Macular Degeneration Market Pipeline, 2018 Therapeutics Development Drugs Profiles and Top Key Players
The Newsman
Wet Macular Degeneration Market Pipeline Review, tracks core statistics comprising key pipeline therapeutics and drug profiles with mechanism of action (MoA), route of administration (RoA), molecule type as well as Wet Macular Degeneration Market ...

and more »

Age-Related Macular Degeneration Market is expected to grow at High CAGR during the forecast period 2018-2026
theperfectinvestor.com
There are two clinical forms of age-related macular degeneration (AMD): dry and wet. Currently there are therapies available only for wet AMD. Drugs in late stages of development target the wet AMD segment and the late stage or atrophic form of dry AMD ...

and more »

Medical News Bulletin

Can stem cells help treat age-related macular degeneration?
Medical News Bulletin
A group of doctors in the United Kingdom recently conducted a phase I clinical trial where they surgically implanted replacement cells, derived from human stem cells, in the eyes of two patients suffering from “wetmacular degeneration. This is the ...
Macular Degeneration – The Leading Cause of BlindnessReports Healthcare

all 8 news articles »

New Zealand Doctor Online

Pharmac funds second-line treatment for macular degeneration
New Zealand Doctor Online
Pharmac has funded a drug that will broaden treatment options for macular degeneration sufferers who find existing treatment ineffective. Aflibercept [Eylea], is used to treat the chronic disease wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and diabetic ...

and more »

Wet Macular Degeneration Market Overview, Demand, Growth and Forecast Research to 2027
theperfectinvestor.com
Wet Macular Degeneration – Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast – 2027 report gives a Comprehensive study of the Wet Macular Degeneration, diagnosed patterns, treatment trends, unmet medical needs and current developments, the study ...


Drug for two leading causes of NZ blindness now funded
Scoop.co.nz
Wet-AMD is the most common cause of blindness in New Zealand.2,[3] One in seven people over the age of 50 is affected by the illness and numbers are expected to rise with the country's ageing population.[2],[4] If untreated, most patients will become ...


Macular Degeneration (AMD) and Diabetic Retinopathy (DR) Drugs Market to Record an Exponential CAGR by 2021
The Newsman
Moreover, the market can also be segmented on the basis of stage and type of AMD, such as early AMD, late AMD, dry AMD and wet AMD. Similarly, the market of diabetic retinopathy is also segmented on the basis of available and under pipeline products, ...


TRACON Announces Presentation of Preclinical Data from Studies of TRC105 in Combination with a PD-1 Antibody in ...
GlobeNewswire (press release)
... company focused on the development and commercialization of novel targeted therapeutics for cancer, wet age-related macular degeneration and fibrotic diseases, today announced that positive preclinical data from TRC105, TRACON's endoglin antibody, ...


Seeking Alpha

3 Things In Biotech, May 23: Gene Therapy Continues To Promise
Seeking Alpha
Disease: Wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD). News: ALPMY partner PanOptica announced that they have dosed their first patient in a phase 1/2 study evaluating PAN-90806, a small molecule anti-VEGF treatment for wet AMD. This study will be ...


First patient dosed in phase 1/2 trial of topical anti-VEGF drop from PanOptica
Healio
“This phase 1/2 trial builds on research completed to date and advances PAN-90806 as a potentially safe and effective topical eye drop treatment for back of the eye diseases such as wet AMD and diabetic retinopathy,” Paul G. Chaney, president and CEO ...


News-Medical.net

PanOptica doses first patient in Phase 1/2 dose-ranging clinical trial of PAN-90806
News-Medical.net
The Company is investigating its new suspension formulation of PAN-90806 as monotherapy, for up to three months, in a masked study involving 60 newly diagnosed patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (wet AMD) randomized to one ...


Wet Macular Degeneration Market Outlook 2018: Market Trends, Segmentation, Market Growth And Competitive ...
The Financial
Wet Macular Degeneration Market” report by offers comprehensive Insight of the pipeline (under development) therapeutics scenario and growth prospects across Wet Macular Degeneration Market development. The report provides detailed coverage of the ...


TRACON Pharmaceuticals Reports Granting of Inducement Award
GlobeNewswire (press release)
SAN DIEGO, May 31, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- TRACON Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ:TCON), a biopharmaceutical company that develops targeted therapies for cancer and wet age-related macular degeneration, announced today that it has issued an ...

and more »

Treatment to tackle leading causes of blindness now funded
Voxy
Bayer has announced that from 1 June, EYLEA (aflibercept) will be accessible as the second-line treatment option for Wet Age Related Macular Degeneration (wet-AMD) and Diabetic Macular Oedema (DMO) and will be made available in both hospitals and ...


StockNewsTimes

Eyepoint Pharmaceuticals (EYPT) versus Horiba (OTCMKTS:HRIBF) Head to Head Analysis
StockNewsTimes
In addition, the company's pre-clinical development program focuses on using its core Durasert platform technology to deliver drugs to treat wet age-related macular degeneration, glaucoma, osteoarthritis, and other diseases. It has license agreements ...

and more »

The San Diego Union-Tribune

Pfenex raises $39.4M for osteoporosis drug
The San Diego Union-Tribune
These are Lucentis, which treats wet macular degeneration; and Neulasta, which protects chemotherapy patients against infection. The Pfenex technology is a proprietary method of making proteins through recombinant genetic technology. It uses a modified ...


TRACON Pharmaceuticals Appoints Biotech Industry Veteran Mark Wiggins as Chief Business Officer
GlobeNewswire (press release)
SAN DIEGO, May 30, 2018 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- TRACON Pharmaceuticals (NASDAQ:TCON), a biopharmaceutical company that develops targeted therapies for cancer and wet age-related macular degeneration, announced today that it has appointed ...

and more »

Adverum: Assessing The Strong Prospects Of A Gene Therapy Innovator
Seeking Alpha
As featured in figure 2, the company is powering an enriched pipeline of molecules to potentially treat the orphan conditions - alpha-1 antitrypsin (“A1AT”) deficiency and hereditary angioedema (“HAE”) - as well as wet age-related macular degeneration ...


Wet Macular Degeneration Market Disease Symptoms, Type, Treatment, Consulting Services, Analysis 2027
Newshawk Time
Wet Macular Degeneration Market Insights, Epidemiology and Market Forecast – 2027, report gives a point by point Analysis of the Wet Macular Degeneration, the study of disease transmission and frame of reference for market by giving the sickness ...


StockNewsTimes

Apellis Pharmaceuticals (APLS) vs. GTX (GTXI) Head to Head Contrast
StockNewsTimes
Its lead product candidate is APL-2 to treat geographic atrophy, wet age-related macular degeneration, paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, autoimmune hemolytic anemia, and nephrology. The company develops APL-2 for intravitreal injection that is an ...
Somewhat Positive News Coverage Somewhat Unlikely to Affect Apellis Pharmaceuticals (APLS) Share PriceThe Ledger Gazette
Cantor Fitzgerald Weighs in on Apellis Pharmaceuticals Inc's FY2018 Earnings (APLS)Week Herald
Sofinnova Ventures Inc Invests $20.16 Million in Apellis Pharmaceuticals Inc (NASDAQ:APLS)Marea Informative (blog)

all 7 news articles »

StockNewsTimes

Trexquant Investment LP Takes $184000 Position in Adverum Biotechnologies Inc (ADVM)
StockNewsTimes
... antitrypsin deficiency, which is in Phase I/II clinical trial; and ADVM-053 for hereditary angioedema disease, which is in preclinical stage; as well as ADVM-022 and ADVM-032 for wet age-related macular degeneration disease, which are in ...

and more »

Finance News Network

Opthea (ASX:OPT) tackling degenerative eye disease
Finance News Network
Opthea Limited (ASX:OPT) Managing Director and CEO Dr Megan Baldwin talks about advances with the company's lead drug candidate OPT-302 in the treatment of wet age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema. Jessica Amir: Hello, I'm ...


TRACON Pharmaceuticals (TCON) Stock Price Up 0%
The Lincolnian Online
About TRACON Pharmaceuticals. TRACON Pharmaceuticals, Inc, a clinical stage biopharmaceutical company, focuses on the development and commercialization of therapeutics for cancer, wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD), and fibrotic diseases.

and more »

StockNewsTimes

MML Investors Services LLC Increases Holdings in Regeneron Pharmaceuticals Inc (REGN)
StockNewsTimes
The company's products include EYLEA injection to treat wet age-related macular degeneration and diabetic macular edema (DME); myopic choroidal neovascularization; and diabetic retinopathy in patients with DME, as well as macular edema following ...

and more »
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What about Resources?

Dr. Pautler's Blog
American Academy of Ophthalmology
MedlinePlus
National Institutes of Health
  • ARMD
    NIH's SeniorHealth website covers the topic of Age-Related Macular Degeneration
National Eye Institute
American Foundation for the Blind - Senior Site
  • Macular Degeneration
    Basic information about AMD and low vision; includes a self-test using an Amsler Grid
Journal of the American Medical Association (JAMA)
WebMD
LightHouse International
  • Macular Degeneration
    Provides a general overview of the basics of AMD, and a simulation showing a scene as it might be viewed by a person with AMD
Prevent Blindness America